Tezos (XTZ)Tezos (XTZ)

Understanding Tezos (XTZ): A Comprehensive Guide to the Self-Amending Cryptocurrency


Tezos (XTZ), a decentralized, open-source platform for assets and applications, has been gaining traction in the ever-evolving world of blockchain technology. Launched in June 2018 after raising $232 million through an initial coin offering (ICO), Tezos distinguishes itself from other smart contract platforms like Ethereum by its on-chain governance mechanism and self-amendment capabilities. This feature enables the protocol to upgrade itself without resorting to hard forks – a contentious issue that has plagued several blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into various aspects of Tezos, including its architecture, use cases, investment potential, and future outlook.

Table of Contents

  • What is Tezos?
    • History and Founders
    • Consensus Mechanism: Liquid Proof-of-Stake (LPoS)
    • On-Chain Governance and Self-Amendment
  • Use Cases of Tezos
    • Smart Contracts and Decentralized Applications (dApps)
    • Digital Assets and Security Tokens
    • Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs)
  • Investment Potential and Price Analysis
    • Factors Driving XTZ’s Value
    • Market Capitalization and Rankings
    • Price Predictions
  • Challenges and Competition
    • Regulatory Concerns
    • Interoperability Issues
    • Scalability and Performance
  • Future Outlook
    • Upcoming Features and Improvements
    • Partnerships and Adoption
    • Roadmap and Development Progress

What is Tezos?

History and Founders

The journey of Tezos began with Arthur Breitman, a former Morgan Stanley quantitative analyst, who published two whitepapers under the pseudonym „L. M. Goodman“ in August 2014, introducing the concept of Tezos and its underlying technology. Later, he founded the company Dynamic Ledger Solutions Inc., which developed the original version of the Tezos software. Together with his wife Kathleen Breitman, they played pivotal roles in creating and promoting Tezos, attracting investors through their ICO in July 2017. However, disputes between the founders and the Tezos Foundation over fund management led to significant legal issues and project delays, causing uncertainty among early supporters. Despite these challenges, the mainnet was eventually launched in September 2018.

Consensus Mechanism: Liquid Proof-of-Stake (LPoS)

At the heart of Tezos lies its consensus algorithm called Liquid Proof-of-Stake (LPoS). It combines elements of Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) and Leased Proof-of-Stake (LPoS) systems while addressing some drawbacks associated with traditional PoW or PoS networks.

In LPoS, token holders can participate in network validation either by running a node themselves („baking“) or delegating their staking rights to another participant known as a „delegate.“ Unlike DPoS, where only a fixed number of nodes are chosen based on votes, any eligible user in Tezos can become a delegate provided they meet certain criteria (e.g., maintaining at least 10,000 XTZ as collateral). Additionally, there is no limit on the number of delegates; hence, users have greater flexibility when selecting whom to trust with their baking rights.

Rewards distribution follows a predictable schedule determined by the protocol. Every three minutes, also referred to as a „cycle,“ a new block is produced, and bakers receive fees associated with transactions within that block along with newly minted XTZ as rewards. The inflation rate decreases gradually over time until it reaches a target of around 5.5% per annum.

On-Chain Governance and Self-Amendment

One of Tezos‘ most innovative features is its built-in on-chain governance mechanism, allowing participants to submit proposals for protocol upgrades directly on the chain. Once submitted, these amendments go through multiple stages before being implemented: proposal, exploration, testing, adoption, and activation. During each phase, stakeholders vote using their tokens to decide whether to accept or reject the proposed change. If approved, the changes take effect seamlessly without requiring hard forks or disrupting network operations.

This unique approach towards governance sets Tezos apart from many other blockchain projects, enabling continuous improvement while minimizing community fragmentation due to ideological differences.

Use Cases of Tezos

Smart Contracts and Decentralized Applications (dApps)

Like Ethereum, Tezos supports the development of smart contracts and dApps through Michelson, a domain-specific language designed explicitly for formal verification purposes. By ensuring code correctness and security, developers can build more complex and sophisticated applications compared to simple ERC-20 tokens seen on Ethereum. Examples include tzBTC, a wrapped Bitcoin implementation on Tezos, and Caltex, a decentralized exchange powered by Sapphire, a high-performance virtual machine similar to Ethereum’s EVM.

Digital Assets and Security Tokens

With its robust infrastructure and strong emphasis on safety, Tezos offers an attractive alternative for issuing digital assets and security tokens compliant with regulatory requirements. Several companies have already adopted Tezos as their preferred platform, such as TQ Tezos launching the first regulated security token offering (STO) on Tezos in Europe, Swissborg raising funds via an STO for its wealth management app, and Polymath partnering with Securitize to leverage Tezos for securities issuance.

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs)

As interest grows in CBDCs worldwide, Tezos has emerged as a viable option for central banks exploring digital currency solutions. Its interoperability with existing financial systems, scalability, and energy efficiency make it well-suited for large-scale deployments. For example, France’s central bank selected Tezos as one of eight platforms for experimenting with CBDCs in collaboration with private sector partners. Similarly, the Monetary Authority of Singapore included Tezos in Project Ubin, a multi-phase initiative aimed at developing a wholesale CBDC prototype leveraging distributed ledger technology.

Investment Potential and Price Analysis

Factors Driving XTZ’s Value

Various factors contribute to Tezos‘ value proposition, including but not limited to:

  • Unique on-chain governance model reducing the risk of contentious hard forks
  • High focus on formality and security through formal verification techniques
  • Active developer ecosystem fostering innovation and growth
  • Increasing adoption across industries ranging from finance to gaming

Market Capitalization and Rankings

Currently ranked 36th according to market capitalization ($1.9 billion as of March 2023), Tezos continues to maintain its position among top cryptocurrencies despite fluctuations in price and rankings. Over the past year, XTZ has shown resilience during bearish markets while demonstrating solid performance during bull runs.

Price Predictions

While making accurate predictions remains challenging given the volatile nature of crypto markets, experts generally agree that Tezos holds promising prospects due to its fundamental strengths and growing adoption. Analysts expect steady growth throughout 2023 and beyond, potentially reaching $5-$10 by the end of 2025. Longer-term forecasts suggest further appreciation, although these projections should be taken with caution considering unforeseen events and macroeconomic conditions impacting global markets.

Challenges and Competition

Regulatory Concerns

Despite its advantages, Tezos faces regulatory hurdles common to all public blockchains. Jurisdictional discrepancies regarding classification, taxation, and compliance present ongoing challenges for both developers and users alike. Navigating these complexities requires constant vigilance and adaptation, especially when dealing with sensitive areas such as security tokens or CBDCs.

Interoperability Issues

Although Tezos boasts compatibility with Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) through third-party tools like Truffle Suite, complete interoperability remains elusive. Bridges connecting different chains remain essential yet often introduce additional complexity and vulnerabilities. Efforts towards cross-chain communication protocols like Cosmos SDK or Polkadot may alleviate some concerns but require coordination and standardization across diverse ecosystems.

Scalability and Performance

Improving transaction speed and capacity remains crucial for mainstream acceptance and widespread usage of blockchain technology. While Tezos performs better than older generation platforms like Bitcoin or Ethereum pre-EIP-1559, newer competitors like Solana, Cardano, or Algorand offer superior performance metrics. Nevertheless, optimizations such as increasing gas limits, implementing rollups, or transitioning to layer-two scaling solutions could help address these limitations.

Future Outlook

Upcoming Features and Improvements

To stay competitive in an increasingly crowded landscape, Tezos continually evolves, incorporating novel features and enhancements. Some notable developments include:

  • Atomic Transactions: Enabling batching of multiple actions within a single operation, thereby improving overall efficiency and lowering costs.
  • View Changes: Implementing view changes to improve finality guarantees, enhancing user experience and reliability.
  • WebAssembly Support: Expanding functionality through support for WebAssembly, broadening the range of available tools and libraries for developers.

Partnerships and Adoption

Collaborations with established organizations bolster credibility and expand reach, driving real-world use cases and generating demand for XTZ. Key partnerships include:

  • McLaren Racing: Integrating Tezos into its racing operations through sponsorship deals, showcasing blockchain technology in motorsports.
  • Red Bull Racing Honda: Partnering with Red Bull Racing Honda F1 Team, expanding visibility and association with high-profile brands.
  • BTG Pactual: Collaborating with Brazil’s largest standalone investment bank, facilitating asset digitization and trading via Tezos-powered solutions.

Roadmap and Development Progress

Transparency is vital for building confidence within the community and encouraging participation. Regular updates on progress, roadmaps detailing upcoming milestones, and active engagement with stakeholders foster trust and promote sustainable growth. To ensure continued success, Tezos must maintain its commitment to excellence, embracing innovation while adhering to best practices and regulatory guidelines.


Tezos represents a compelling choice for businesses and individuals seeking secure, flexible, and adaptable blockchain infrastructure. With its distinctive governance structure, emphasis on formal verification, and burgeoning ecosystem, Tezos stands poised to capture opportunities presented by emerging trends in decentralized technologies. Although challenges persist, concerted efforts towards solving scalability, interoperability, and regulatory issues will strengthen Tezos‘ position as a leading contender among next-generation smart contract platforms.

Von Finixyta

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